Parliament of India
Rajya Sabha

Department-Related Parliamentary Committee On HRD

81st  REPORT

on

VALUE-BASED EDUCATION

Presented to the Rajya Sabha on 19.04.1999)
(Laid on the table of Lok Sabha on 22.04.1999)


CONTENTS

    1. Composition Of Committee

    2. Preface

    3  Reports

    4  Minutes

 



COMPOSITION OF THE COMMITTEE

(1999-2000)

1. Shri S.B. Chavan - Chairman

RAJYA SABHA

  1. Shri Banarsi Das Gupta
  2. Shri Balkavi Bairagi
  3. Shri Khan Ghufran Zahidi
  4. Shri Rajnath Singh `Surya’
  5. Shri O. Rajagopal
  6. Shri Dina Nath Mishra
  7. Dr. (Smt.) Bharati Ray
  8. Shri Ranjan Prasad Yadav
  9. Shri Nagendra Nath Ojha
  10. Shri M.P. A. Samad Samadani
  11. Shri Solipeta Ramchandra Reddy
  12. Chaudhary Harmohan Singh Yadav
  13. Dr. C. Narayana Reddy
  14. Dr. Akhtar Hasan Rizvi


 

 

LOK SABHA

  1. Shri Baswaraj Patil Sedam
  2. Shri Sartaj Singh
  3. Smt. Sumitra Mahajan
  4. Shri Shanker Prasad Jaiswal
  5. Shri Chinmayanand Swami
  6. Dr. Sanjay Singh
  7. Dr. Mahadeepak Singh
  8. Shri Indrajeet Mishra
  9. Dr. Bizay Sonkar Shastri
  10. Shri Ashok Singh
  11. Dr. Ashok Patel
  12. Dr. Ulhas Vasudeo Patil
  13. Shri Mallanagouda Basanagouda Patil
  14. Shri Shamanur Shiv Shankarappa
  15. Shri Ajit Jogi
  16. Shri V.M. Sudheeran
  17. Shri Laxman Singh
  18. Shri Shankar Pannu
  19. Shri Abdul Hamid
  20. Dr. Ram Chandra Dome
  21. Shri Samik Lahiri
  22. Prof. S.P. Singh Baghel
  23. Dr. (Smt.) V. Saroja
  24. Shri H.P. Singh
  25. Shri Suravaram Sudhakar Reddy
  26. Smt. Krishna Bose
  27. Dr. Ranjit Kumar Panja
  28. Shri S. Arumgham
  29. Shri Balasaheb Vikhe Patil

SECRETARIAT

  1. Shri Satish Kumar, Joint Secretary
  2. Smt. Vandana Garg, Director
  3. Shri C.B. Rai, Under Secretary
  4. Smt. Manjeet, Committee Officer

COMPOSITION OF THE COMMITTEE

(1997-98)

1. Shri S.B. Chavan - Chairman

RAJYA SABH

2. Shri V. Kishore Chandra S. Deo

  1. Dr. B.B. Dutta
  2. Shrimati Jayanti Patnaik
  3. Dr. Shrikant Ramchandra Jichkar
  4. Shri Raj Nath Singh
  5. Shri Vishnu Kant Shastri
  6. Prof. Ram Bakhsh Singh Varma
  7. Shri Ranjan Prasad Yadav
  8. Prof. (Shrimati) Bharati Ray
  9. Shri R. Margabandu
  10. Shri Nagendra Nath Ojha
  11. Dr. Mohan Babu
  12. Shri M.P. A. Samad Samadani


 

 

LOK SABHA

  1. Shrimati Sumitra Mahajan
  2. Shri Vaidhya Dau Dayal Joshi
  3. Shri Sartaj Singh
  4. Shri Mahadeepak Singh Shakya
  5. Shri Jai Prakash (Hardoi)
  6. Shri Rajendrasinh Rana
  7. Maharani Divya Singh
  8. Shri Mahant Abedyanath
  9. Dr. Ram Lakhan Singh
  10. Chaudhary Paragi Lal
  11. Dr. C. Silvera
  12. Shri Ishwarbhai K. Chavda
  13. Shri Dutta Meghe
  14. Shri I.G. Sanadi
  15. Shrimati Krishna Bose
  16. Shri P.V. Rajeshwar Rao
  17. Shri A. Venkatarama Reddy
  18. Dr. Krupasindhu Bhoi
  19. Shri Pawan Diwan
  20. Shri Krishna
  21. Shri Shivanand H. Koujalgi
  22. Dr. Ram Chandra Dome
  23. Shri Samik Lahiri
  24. Shri S.K. Kaarvendhan
  25. Shri Mukhtar Anis
  26. Dr. M. Jagannath
  27. Dr. Bali Ram
  28. Shri Ranen Barman
  29. Shri Pradeep Jaiswal
  30. Shrimati Hedwig Michael Rego

 


PREFACE

I, the Chairman of the Department-related Parliamentary Standing Committee on Human Resource Development, having been authorised by the Committee to present the Report on its behalf, do hereby present this Eighty-first Report of the Committee on Value Based Education.

2. The Committee in this connection appointed a Sub-Committee under my convernorship in its meeting held on 16th January, 1997 to look into the various aspects of the Value-Based Education for making an in-depth study on the subject and to present a report thereon to the Committee at an early date.

2. The Committee considered the various documents and relevant papers received from the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development. The Sub-Committee held discussions with a number of State Governments. The Sub-Committee also visited a few educational institutions where special efforts are being made to inculcate values in the students. The Sub-Committee also heard the views of eminent persons/educationists in this regard.

3. The Committee considered and adopted the report submitted by the Sub-Committee at its meeting held on 22nd January, 1999. The Committee decided to present the Report in the House during the Budget Session of Parliament.
 

NEW DELHI;                                                                                                                                S.B. CHAVAN

JANUARY 22, 1999                                                                                                                        CHAIRMAN,

MAGHA 2, 1920 (Saka) Department-related Parliamentary

Standing Committee on Human Resource Development


REPORT

1. Values are principles which are consistent and universal and which direct our action and activities. They are in-built in our society, common to not only all the communities but also to all religions at all times. Values are, in other words, virtues in an individual. These values, if deteriorated, will hasten or accelerate the break-down of family, society and nation as a whole. India has age-old tradition of values interwoven in the national fabric. Although there has been great advancement in science and technology, there has been a gradual erosion of values which is reflected in the day-to-day life of a large section of our present society. Our young generation under the growing influence of negative aspects of Western culture, is stranded on the cross-roads, not able to decide which direction to take.

2. Education should aim at multi-faceted development of a human being – his intellectual, physical, spiritual and ethical development. Youth is the mirror in which future of a nation is fully reflected. In order to preserve, maintain and advance the position of our country in the world, it is imperative that there should be a comprehensive programme of value-education starting from the pre-primary level, embracing the entire spectrum of educational process. The minds, hearts and hands of children are to be engaged in forming their own character to know what is `good’, love `good’ and do `good’.

3. The Committee is aware that since independence, a number of high-powered Commissions and Committees on Education, namely the Radhakrishnan Commission (1948-49), Kothari Commission (1964-66), National Policy on Education (1986), Ramamurti Committee (1990), Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) Committee on Policy (1992), Planning Commission Core Group on Value Orientation of Education (1992) have highlighted the urgent need for making our educational system value-based. However, the Committee finds it very disappointing to observe that such well-concerted efforts during the last four decades have failed to achieve the desired results. Well-chalked out plans and strategies for making education value-oriented still remain on paper. The Committee feels that lack of co-ordinated effort on the part of all the implementing agencies may be held responsible for this sort of affairs.

4. Against this background, the Committee decided to re-examine the entire gamut of value-orientation of our educational system so as to come up with some effective suggestions for bringing about a much-awaited change. Realising that a smaller group would be in a better position to make an in-depth analysis of the subject, a Sub-Committee on Value Based Education was constituted on 16th January, 1997, which was subsequently re-constituted on 6th August, 1997. However, as the work allocated to the Sub-Committee could not be completed during the term of the previous main Committee, a new Sub-Committee came into being on 6th August, 1998.

  1. The Committee invited suggestions from noted educationists on various aspects of value-based education, at what stage it should be introduced, whether both Govt. and NGOs should be involved in this task and in what manner it should be introduced. In order to have an over-all idea about the state-run value based education programmes, the Committee held discussions with representatives of a number of State Governments. The Committee was also benefited by views of quite a few eminent experts/NGOs, doing pioneering work in this area. Besides that, the Committee also held interactions with representatives of various Government Organisations. An encouraging response from individuals/organisations was received from all parts of the country. This showed the public concern with this vital aspect – the building up of our national character.

6. It was generally felt that ours is a vast and diverse ancient country historically, geographically and socially. Traditions are different, the ways of thinking and living are also different. But there are certain common elements which unite the country in its diversity. This country has a long tradition. Here from ancient times, there have been great saints and thinkers from different religions and sects who have talked about some eternal values. These values are to be inculcated by our young generation.

7. In ancient times in Gurukuls, emphasis used to be primarily on building the character of a student. Today, right from the schools upto the professional colleges, emphasis is on acquiring techniques and not values. We seem to have forgotten that skills acquired on computers tend to become outdated after sometime but values remain for ever. In other words, present day education is nothing but an information transmission process. Our educational system aims at only information based knowledge and the holistic view of turning the student into a perfect human being and a useful member of society has been completely set aside. Swami Vivekananda aptly said,

"Education is not the amount of information that is put in your brain and runs riot there, undigested, all your life. We must have life-building, man-making, character-making assimilation of ideas. If education is identical with information, libraries are the greatest sages of the world and encyclopedias are rishis."

8. Truth (Satya), Righteous Conduct (Dharma), Peace (Shanti), Love (Prema) and Non-violence (Ahimsa) are the core universal values which can be identified as the foundation-stone on which the value-based education programme can be built up. These five are indeed universal values and respectively represent the five domains of human personality: intellectual, physical, emotional, psychological and spiritual. They also are correspondingly co-related with the five major objectives of education, namely, knowledge, skill, balance, vision and identity.

  1. Primary school stage is the period in child’s life when seed of value-education can be implanted in his/her impressionable mind in a very subtle way. If this seed is nurtured by the capable hands of dedicated teachers in school, if they insert values at appropriate intervals during a child’s school life, it can be easily said that half the battle in building up national character has been won.
  2. It is very essential that at the school level right from primary stage, deliberate, planned and sustained efforts are made to inculcate basic human values among the students. Values are best initiated by a mother to her small child under her tender care in the secure atmosphere of home. However, nowadays, children are enrolled in school as early as at the age of four. At this impressionable stage, values like respect for parents, elders and teachers, truth, punctuality, cleanliness and courtesy can be easily inculcated in small children. They can also be sensitised regarding gender equality.
  3. Besides the personal values, there are certain social values which ought to be imbibed by the young mind. These are the values which concern the whole community: concern for the aged and the handicapped, for the deprived sections of the society etc. Sincere belief in the dignity of labour is generally found to be lacking in our young generation. Values of self-dependence and insistence on doing manual labour are thus required to be impressed upon small children.
  4. In view of the diverse character of our country, it is essential that certain National Values are also imbibed by our young students. They should be acquainted with the history of India’s freedom struggle, cultural heritage, constitutional obligations and the features comprising our national identity. The Committee feels that some of these national values can be imparted indirectly at the primary stage while at the middle and secondary level, these can be included in the curriculum.
  5. Another aspect that must be given some thought is religion, which is the most misused and misunderstood concept. The process of making the students acquainted with the basics of all religions, the values inherent therein and also a comparative study of the philosophy of all religions should begin at the middle stage in schools and continue up to the university level. Students have to be made aware that the basic concept behind every religion is common, only the practices differ. Even if there are differences of opinion in certain areas, people have to learn to co-exist and carry no hatred against any religion.
  6. One should never forget that all the values are derived from ultimate reality – supreme power or self-consciousness – to which man orients himself. Once faith in that reality is lost, then values lose their meaning. To believe that we have the divine spark in each one of us is the most important eternal value to be inculcated by the small children even before starting their school life. It is acknowledged now the world over that ultimate goal of education is realisation of the treasure within.
  7. There has to be developed in students a feeling of respect for all languages of the country, if the concept of unity in diversity is to be effectively imbibed. Not only this, students also have to make a conscious effort to learn at least one regional language alongwith their own mother tongue. The Committee understands that at present mother tongue is not being taught in all the schools in the country. The issue whether it can be started in all the schools may be examined by the Department of Education. At the secondary stage, at least one foreign language may be learnt by the students with a view to know the advantages of international achievements in science and technology and other fields of human development.

16. A great deal of responsibility for evolving an educational system akin to our own civilisation and our own tradition rests on teachers. Children enter the school at a very tender age. Right through the primary and upper primary stage the teacher remains the role model for them. They have blind faith in him/her. The teacher is the key person who can inculcate all the required values in small children, in spite of many odds. This task would become easier if the teacher through his personality, character and actions sets an example before his students.

17. The present day concept of an efficient teacher is that he is a person who can teach mathematics well, or who can speak English well. Ideally, the transactional process should emphasise the hidden values in each lesson. But unfortunately, most teachers emphasise only the outer, superficial content in terms of knowledge and examine/evaluate only – whether the child has been able to memorise and has the capacity to reproduce what is memorised. Their behavioural aspects are seldom measured by teachers nor brought out during the transactional process.

18. The Committee feels that teachers cannot be held wholly responsible for the prevailing situation. Inadequacies exist in the teacher training system which does not prepare the teachers to either assimilate or disseminate values in their teaching. Therefore, the most important intervention that has to be made is in the area of teacher education. The Committee is of the view that value- education should be a part of curriculum for teacher training programme. Prospective teachers should be introduced to the concept of value-education. All methods and techniques – both direct and indirect for inculcating values in students in tune with the different stages of their psychological development should be an essential component of teacher training programme.

Re-orientation of teachers is also equally important. They need to be re-oriented, so that they may impart higher values to their pupils through example and through precept. Periodic value-orientation camps and workshops, brain-storming sessions etc. may, therefore, be essential components of inservice training for teachers.

19. Our educational system, which is too structured to allow for innovations and experimentation, is also to be blamed for the erosion of values. At the national/State level, a decision needs to be taken as to what are the core inputs which need to be incorporated in the curriculum and it should be left to the schools and colleges to innovate and experiment. The Committee feels that the teachers ought to have freedom, within the broad parameters of prescribed curriculum to decide what is to be imparted to children and the manner in which it is to be imparted.

  1. During the course of its interaction with experts, the Committee was given to understand that at the school level, it would not be advisable to introduce value education as a separate component. School curriculum being very heavy, introducing another component would be increasing that load further. The Committee is of the view that as at the primary level, the syllabus is not rigidly written down, there is enough scope for the interested teachers to innovate things and teach in their own style. Therefore, instead of a separate value-education class or a prescribed text for it, a primary school teacher can integrate values in his students through teaching – learning methods, instructional materials and co-curricular activities. A system thus needs to be developed wherein various values can be identified and integrated in the curriculum.
  2. Nobody can deny the fact that education itself is value-inherent. There cannot be a single teacher in a school who can be categorised as a teacher for values. The ideal situation would be that various aspects of value education are suitably incorporated in all subjects of school education. Thus, every subject teacher would be a teacher of values. Science and technology can be used as levers for inculcating tremendous values in students. For example, through Physics the concept of order, symmetry, supreme symmetry, equilibrium etc. can be imparted. Similarly, a new world-view can be portrayed by Social Sciences focussing on higher values like the principles of democracy, of tolerance and co-existence, respect for other people’s views, collective wisdom etc.

22. The Committee is not in agreement with the view that value-education should be taught as a separate subject and that students should be assessed through an examination only because otherwise the students and the teachers do not take the subject seriously. The Committee feels that such a procedure would no doubt encourage the student to have theoretical knowledge of values for securing marks in the examination. But it is doubtful as to how much values in true sense would be imbibed by them.

23. School environment is to be consciously organised to expose students to values formally as well as informally. It has to be so congenial that a child is able to enjoy it and also pick up some ideas which can remain with him as habits.

24. Morning assembly is a very effective medium of imparting values in students. Prayers sung in chorus are bound to create faith in a supreme power in the young minds. Patriotic songs sung in chorus help to inculcate belief in secularism and patriotism in the students. They are much more influential in forming the thought process. Special emphasis can be focussed on a particular value every day during the morning assembly.

25. In the morning assembly, students may also be encouraged to make presentation on different subjects with special focus on patriotism, national integration, humanism, cultural unity in diversity, service and sacrifice, secularism and the prevailing social problems. It is likely to have an impact on all students.

26. Meditation can also play a key role. Students can sit silently and reflect about their conduct and behaviour; they can learn to develop concentration and they can be made aware of the quiet strength lying within one's own body and mind. Meditation before exams is also bound to develop their concentration leading to better results.

27. At primary level, values can be imparted through stories/folk songs/ folklores/skits/flip charts/film strips. Story-telling is a very effective and practical means of transmitting values. Through this medium, small children can be made acquainted with the lives of great men who have achieved great heights in whatever sphere – be it science, religion, literature, industry, politics or sports.

  1. The Committee would like to emphasise that values are to be projected in such a manner that they relate to down to earth reality. Young students are fascinated by stories of great leaders like Swami Vivekananda but they tend to have a feeling that they are too high a role model and it is virtually impossible for them to follow their ideals. Here the role of the teacher becomes very crucial. He has to project the life story of great leaders in such a way that innocent minds are able to connect them with ordinary human beings who rose to such heights by sticking to great values.
  2. The Committee feels that plays/dramas constitute another means for inculcating values in young students. When children are directly involved in the production of dramas and when they themselves conceptualise the theme, they are surely affected by the values inherent in such plays.
  3. The Committee finds that the NCC, Scouting or Guiding which earlier used to be a major activity in most schools now seem to have almost disappeared. Besides that, due to heavy burden of studies, students are not generally inclined to participate in sports activities. There is a need for promoting these activities which can prove to be effective in promoting discipline, co-operation and creating a healthy attitude towards life.

31. At high school level, reading habits can be promoted by having compulsory library periods. Debates, discussions on specific subjects, symposia would develop in students values of compassion, respect for others and familiarity with and tolerance of the view-points of others.

  1. The Committee is in agreement with the widely-accepted view that value-based education should be introduced at the school level and extended to college and university level. In the secondary stage, some advanced values which are of vital importance for national integration should be integrated into the syllabus.
  2. The Committee is of the view that in the advanced stage, i.e. at the college and university level, values like human rights, co-existence and also ethical values in science and technology and comparative study of all religions – need to be taught by prescribing special books. Literature with special emphasis on co-existence and non-imposition of fundamentalist ideas will have to be produced.
  3. Sex education is a tricky subject demanding our careful attention and thinking. At what stage it should be introduced, should it be introduced at all? According to the expert opinion, it should be introduced as a component of curriculum at the appropriate stage. The Committee agrees that it has become necessary to expose our young students to this education in view of ever-increasing prevalence of diseases like AIDS and Hepatitis B. However, a very cautious and objective approach is required on the part of teachers. The maturity level of students has to be properly assessed before starting such a programme.
  4. The Committee is of the opinion that incentives including awards can be given to teachers successfully integrating values in their normal lessons. Similarly, those students who through their actions have been able to bring forth before the student community certain commendable human values like cooperation, honesty, bravery and integrity can be given awards and merit scholarships. Such incentives would certainly go a long way in inculcating values in children.
  5. The Committee feels that history needs to be presented to the students in the right perspective. This has nothing to do with any ideology. Education has a lasting impression on young minds and distortion of history should not be allowed. Value of tolerance against the backdrop of culturally plural society of our country should be prominently brought out specially while writing history books.
  6. The Committee finds that most works on the subject of value-based education are heavily loaded with urban values, urban attitude of the middle class and to some extent of the neo-rich in rural areas. Values representing rural and tribal background should certainly find a place in the value education programme of the country as a whole. The Committee is, therefore, of the considered opinion that special efforts in this regard ought to be made. One attempt can be that dedicated teachers willing to work in rural and tribal areas should be given preference in every possible way. In this regard, successful implementation of ‘Shiksha Karmi’ Scheme in Rajasthan can be cited as an example.

38. With the advancement in information technology, audio-visual media has dominated the information/knowledge system of our country. Under the invasion of Western culture penetrating into India through the media, the young are being literally moved away from our age-old traditions and values. Any attempt to instil indigenous values in students in schools, colleges are over-shadowed by the over-whelming impact of Western culture. The Committee is of the considered view that stringent efforts are required on the part of the Govt. to monitor the programmes being aired/telecast through its media. Similar steps need to be taken so as to have a mechanism of quality control of programmes under the control of private agencies too.

39. The Committee is aware that some good programmes are shown on the national TV but their message somehow is not reaching the young minds. Initiatives to make our own programmes attractive and meaningful need to be taken and that requires Government encouragement and Government patronage.

40. Divergent views were put across to the Committee as to the necessity of having a national programme on value-based education. One view was that a centralised programme should be formulated and the role of States should be restricted to the implementation thereof; otherwise there was every likelihood of different States taking different directions. The other viewpoint was that there should be an element of both centralisation and decentralisation. Certain universal core values which have an all-India applicability should be incorporated in the national programme to be adopted by all States. However, flexibility should be there so that States have the option to include values in their respective education programmes. The Committee is of the opinion that Central initiative is important. But too much centralisation tends to make the system regimented and rigid. States should also have a say in the matter.

41. The development of human resource, strongly anchored on value based education, is a stupendous task. The present educational system is faced with complex problems. In India, a country of enormous size and diversity, the implementation of any policy demands coordinated efforts by the Central Govt., the State Govts. and the Civil Societies actively involved in the implementation of value-based education. The Committee, however, feels that only those NGOs with proven track records and who are specially engaged in tribal, rural and backward areas need to be identified. An effective monitoring mechanism needs to be evolved so as to have a proper feedback of the work done by the NGOs.